Tag Archives: landscape

Brasil-UNESCO-SERRA DA CAPIVARA

Brasil-UNESCO-SERRA DA CAPIVARA

Many of the numerous rock shelters in the Serra da Capivara National Park are decorated with cave paintings, some more than 25,000 years old. They are an outstanding testimony to one of the oldest human communities of South America.

Established in 1979, the Serra da Capivara National Park stretched across the municipalities of São Raimundo Nonato, São João do Piauí, and Canto do Buriti in the south-eastern section of Piauí state in Brazil’s Northeast Region. In 1994, the municipality of Brejo do Piauí and, in 1995 the municipality of João Costa were dismembered   of São João do Piauí. The municipality of Coronel José Dias was dismembered of São Raimundo Nonato in 1992. These three municipalities, plus São Raimundo Nonato, are partially located in the area of the Serra da Capivara National Park.

The Park covers nearly 129, 140 hectares and has a circumference of 214 kilometres. It is situated in the morphoclimatic zone of the Brazilian Caatinga, distinguished by the multiplicity of plant formations typical of the semi-arid regions of Northeast Brazil. The region’s plant species are primarily characterized by the loss of most of their leaves during the dry season, extending from May to December, serving to lend the landscape its silver hue. The region borders two major geological formations – the Maranhão-Piauí sediment basin and the peripheral depression of the São Francisco River – and is endowed with a diversity of relief vegetation and landscapes of breathtaking beauty and dotted with exceptional vistas of the surrounding valleys, mountains, and plains.

The area houses one of the most important archaeological sites in the Americas containing evidence and artefacts that have forced a sweeping re-evaluation of the fundamental traditional theories underpinning the origins of human settlement in the Americas.

Over 300 archaeological sites have been found within the park, the majority consisting of rock and wall paintings dating from 50,000-30,000 years Before Present. Many of the numerous rock shelters in the Serra da Capivara National Park are decorated with rock paintings, some more than 25,000 years old. The analyses and dating of the evidence and artefacts found in the Serra da Capivara National Park serve to confirm the millennial presence of human beings on the American continent and the importance of the heritage. The ensemble of archaeological sites contains dating evidence that has thoroughly revolutionized classical theories regarding the entry route into the Americas by human populations along the Bering Strait. According to studies, the area encompassing the Serra da Capivara National Park was occupied by hunters and gatherers, followed by ceramic-farming societies. Discoveries at the Boqueirão da Pedra Furada archaeological site suggest that human beings may have settled the region as far back as 50,000 years ago, while the oldest remaining archaeological site with surviving rock  art dates back 10,530 years Before Present. In the light of these new findings, the region represents one of the most significant archaeological sites in the world and the property is an outstanding testimony to one of the oldest human communities of South America

http://whc.unesco.org

China – UNESCO WHS – Jiuzhaigou Valley Scenic and Historic Interest Area

China-UNESCO-Jiuzhaigou valley

Stretching over 72,000 ha in the northern part of Sichuan Province, the jagged Jiuzhaigou valley reaches a height of more than 4,800 m, thus comprising a series of diverse forest ecosystems. Its superb landscapes are particularly interesting for their series of narrow conic karst land forms and spectacular waterfalls. Some 140 bird species also inhabit the valley, as well as a number of endangered plant and animal species, including the giant panda and the Sichuan takin.

China – UNESCO WHS – Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area

China-UNESCO-Huanglong

Situated in the north-west of Sichaun Province, the Huanglong valley is made up of snow-capped peaks and the easternmost of all the Chinese glaciers. In addition to its mountain landscape, diverse forest ecosystems can be found, as well as spectacular limestone formations, waterfalls and hot springs. The area also has a population of endangered animals, including the giant panda and the Sichuan golden snub-nosed monkey.

Indian – UNESCO WHS – Western Ghats

India-UNESCO-Munnar Kerala-tea gardens

Older than the Himalaya mountains, the mountain chain of the Western Ghats represents geomorphic features of immense importance with unique biophysical and ecological processes. The site’s high montane forest ecosystems influence the Indian monsoon weather pattern. Moderating the tropical climate of the region, the site presents one of the best examples of the monsoon system on the planet. It also has an exceptionally high level of biological diversity and endemism and is recognized as one of the world’s eight ‘hottest hotspots’ of biological diversity. The forests of the site include some of the best representatives of non-equatorial tropical evergreen forests anywhere and are home to at least 325 globally threatened flora, fauna, bird, amphibian, reptile and fish species.

Spain – Tenerife

Spain-UNESCO-Teide National Park

Teide National Park

Situated on the island of Tenerife, Teide National Park features the Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcano that, at 3,718 m, is the highest peak on Spanish soil. Rising 7,500 m above the ocean floor, it is regarded as the world’s third-tallest volcanic structure and stands in a spectacular environment. The visual impact of the site is all the greater due to atmospheric conditions that create constantly changing textures and tones in the landscape and a ‘sea of clouds’ that forms a visually impressive backdrop to the mountain. Teide is of global importance in providing evidence of the geological processes that underpin the evolution of oceanic islands.

 

Spain-UNESCO-sAN cRISTOBAL DE LA lAGUNA

San Cristóbal de La Laguna

San Cristóbal de La Laguna, in the Canary Islands, has two nuclei: the original, unplanned Upper Town; and the Lower Town, the first ideal ‘city-territory’ laid out according to philosophical principles. Its wide streets and open spaces have a number of fine churches and public and private buildings dating from the 16th to the 18th century.

France – Chateau de Nacqueville

France-Chateau de Nacqueville

 

Since building started 500 years ago, the history of the Chateau and Park of Nacqueville has been closely linked to those of the three families who have lived there:

Body text bullet pointthe Grimouvilles in the 16th and 17th centuries

Body text bullet pointthe Mangon family, and their relatives the Barbout de Querquevilles and the de Tocquevilles, in the 18th. and 19th. Centuries, and

Body text bullet pointthe Hersents and their descendants from 1880 to the present day.

 

In 1510 the ancient Norman family of Grimouville constructed the original building as a fortified manor with a protective wall, 6 metres high. This completely blocked out the view from the manor thus giving the owners of the time no interest in landscaping the surrounding countryside.

Around 1700 the defensive wall was knocked down. With only the postern gate as the remaining reminder of the original defences, the owners had a beautiful view from the Chateau over the valley floor to the ornamental woods beyond.

Only much later, in 183o, did Hippolyte de Tocqueville, whose wife owned the estate, decide to create a true park.

An English landscape gardener was commissioned to design a romantic park, taking in the three small valleys. Within a few years the work had been successfully completed:

Body text bullet pointcreating a lake next to the Chateau and forming ponds, waterfalls and fountains,

Body text bullet pointclearing the main valley and planting it with ornamental trees, flowering shrubs and exotic plants,

Body text bullet pointmoving the entrance drive to lead right up to the Chateau, and

Body text bullet pointextending the woodlands on the surrounding high ground.

These changes so impressed the political philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville, the author of the classic “Democracy in America”, that he wrote to his friend G. de Beaumont in 1857:

“I was, the day before yesterday, at my brother Hippolyte’s house. They have lavished enough money and taste on Nacqueville to make it one of the prettiest places in the world.”

 

Restoration

During the 2nd World War, the Chateau and the Park were occupied by the German army and then the Americans, who used the Chateau as an headquarters.

When Marcel Hersent (1895-1971) reclaimed the property in 1946, the whole place was in a disastrous state. Parts of the roof were missing, the interior was in ruins, the park had been devastated and the woods badly damaged. Over the next ten years, he completely restored the Chateau and put the Park and the woods back in order.

Proud of his work, in 1962 he opened the Park and the Chateau to the public.

Consolidation

In 1971, Marcel’s daughter Jacqueline, who had married Francois Azan in 1946, inherited the property. For the next 29 years they dedicated themselves to keeping the estate in perfect order, preserving its harmony and charm.

In 2000, the property passed to their daughter, Florence. With her husband Thierry d’Harcourt and their three children Hildevert, Alban and Quitterie, they left their Australian home of 12 years to settle in Nacqueville and pursue the task of the 18 previous generations who have over 5 centuries been the owners of Nacqueville.